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Chemicals are used to treat wastewater in chemical water treatment. The most common method to treat water using chemicals is chlorination, wherein chlorine, a strong oxidizing chemical is used to kill the bacteria which lead to decomposition of water. Ozone, an oxidizing disinfectant, is another oxidizing agent used to treat polluted water. These oxidizing agents affect the biological growth process of bacteria, thus making the water usable. A chemical process called neutralization is commonly used in industrial wastewater treatment. In this process, acid or base is added to the water to adjust its pH value back to neutral level. A common base used in this process is lime, which is mostly used to neutralize acid wastes. Polyvalent metals, metals having more than one valence, are very often used as coagulating chemicals in sewage treatment. Lime, iron containing compounds like ferric sulfate, aluminum sulfate are some commonly used coagulants. There are a few water treatment processes which can be categorized as physical as well as chemical. The best example is the use of carbon, which adsorbs contaminants to clean the water.

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